Art historian, prominent representative of Czech history of the late 19th century. The first all-Czech positivist art historian. In the years 1875—1878 he studied at the Philosophical Faculty of Charles University in Prague and at the Institute for Austrian History in Vienna. After his studies he became a supply teacher of history and geography at a Czech Realschule (technical secondary school). In 1882, a degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred on him. On 4 July 1885 he was appointed a custodian and on 16 December 1895 the Director of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, which he headed until 1 February 1911. In 1908 he became an assistant professor and in 1911 a professor and the Head of the Art Department at the Czech University in Prague (until 1927). He founded a Society for Art History (1913), which from 1916 on published its yearbook. He was a regular member of the Czech Academy and an assistant professor of the Czech Technical University and was active in many societies and clubs. He also dealt with issues of landmark preservation and was a member of the Club for Old Prague. His most important works include The Development of Miniature Painting at the Time of the Kings from the Family of Luxembourg (1885), Peter Parléř and Gmünd Masters (1885), The Development of Miniature Painting at the Time of the Kings from the Family of Jagiello (1896), Art in Prague at the Time of Rudolf II (1904), Treasures of Czech Illumination Art (1915), Book Binding from the 18th Century to Modern Times (1904), On Historical and Structural Character of Prague (1916) and Antichrist in Medieval Sciences and Art (1918).